Death & the Social Network

The mass adoption of social network sites includes, as a natural consequence, the growing presence of profiles representing individuals who are no longer alive. However, the death of a user does not result in the elimination of his or her account nor the profile’s place inside a network of digital peers. Indeed, the fact that friends use a user’s profile page, post mortem, to say last goodbyes, share memories, and coordinate funereal arrangements is well known, if not frequently discussed. Death plays an increasingly significant role, then, in the experience of social networking. More broadly, the entwining of online and offline experience highlights the importance of thinking about digital representations as things that might well survive their owners or referents.

Focusing on death highlights three important themes for social networks and the representation of identity for their users:

Embodiment concerns the way that data objects and digital representations “stand for” human bodies. It encapsulates issues of access, issues of ownership, issues of management, issues of presence, issues of personhood, and issues of participatory status, both at the technical level and at the social.

Representation invokes the traditional considerations of online identity, the presentation of self, and the crafting of acceptable personas as well as consideration of the ways in which records are created with specific purposes and representations in mind. Representation relates to embodiment in that it speaks to the relationship that holds between the data object and the human body, but it incorporates too the active, purposive, strategic practices of re-present-ing, that is, of making something present again, with particular ends in mind.

Temporality concerns the notion of “lifecycles” as it has been applied in system development—the circumstances under which digital systems come into being, are put to use, and are taken out of service. The life of a user and the life of that user’s data are frequently not the same, an issue particularly acute when considering the continuation of dead user profiles in SNS.


  1. Tending Unmarked Graves: Classification of Post-mortem Content on Social Media Jiang, Jialun "Aaron" and Brubaker, Jed R.
  2. Describing and Classifying Post-Mortem Content on Social Media Jiang, Jialun "Aaron" and Brubaker, Jed
    Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM-2018)
  3. "Control your emotions, Potter": An Analysis of Grief Policing on Facebook in Response to Celebrity Death Gach, Katie Z. and Fiesler, Casey and Brubaker, Jed R.
  4. Legacy Contact: Designing and Implementing Post-mortem Stewardship at Facebook Brubaker, Jed R and Callison-Burch, Vanessa
    Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ’16
  5. ’Is’ to ’Was’: Coordination and Commemoration on Posthumous Wikipedia Biographies Keegan, Brian C. and Brubaker, Jed R.
    Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing - CSCW ’15
  6. Stewarding a Legacy: Responsibilities and Relationships in the Management of Post-mortem Data Brubaker, Jed R. and Dombrowski, Lynn S. and Gilbert, Anita M. and Kusumakaulika, Nafiri and Hayes, Gillian R.
    Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI ’14
  7. Death, Memorialization, and Social Media: A Platform Perspective for Personal Archives Acker, Amelia and Brubaker, Jed R.
  8. Beyond the Grave: Facebook as a Site for the Expansion of Death and Mourning Brubaker, Jed R. and Hayes, Gillian R. and Dourish, Paul
  9. Grief-Stricken in a Crowd: The Language of Bereavement and Distress in Social Media Brubaker, Jed R. and Kivran-Swaine, F and Taber, L. and Hayes, Gillian R.
    Sixth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media
  10. "We will never forget you [online]": an empirical investigation of post-mortem MySpace comments Brubaker, Jed R. and Hayes, Gillian R.
    Proceedings of the ACM 2011 conference on Computer supported cooperative work - CSCW ’11
  11. Death and the Social Network Brubaker, Jed R. and Vertesi, Janet
    HCI at the End of Life Workshop at CHI2010